Mount Rainier [maʊnt rəˈnɪər ... Stelle, wo sich die beiden Krater überlappen, wird Columbia Crest genannt und ist heute der höchste Punkt des Mount Rainier. "[9], Mount Rainier was first known by the local Salishan speakers as Talol, Tacoma, or Tahoma. [88], About two mountaineering deaths each year occur because of rock and ice fall, avalanche, falls, and hypothermia. When Mount Rainier erupts (and the scientists insist that it is definitely a question of “when”, not of “if”), and it will be an explosive type of eruption, first of all a huge column of ash, gas and hot rocks will blast up to the sky for more than ten miles. Dieterich hopes that his … Seismic monitoring of Mount Rainier can be used to detect the movement of magma beneath or within the edifice that could signal an imminent volcanic eruption. MUDFLOWS. Together with perennial snow patches, the 29 named glacial features cover about 30.41 square miles (78.8 km2) of the mountain's surface in 2015 and have an estimated volume of about 0.69 cubic miles (2.9 km3). Mount Rainier, the highest peak in the Cascade Range, is located 87 km SE of Seattle and forms a majestic backdrop to the landscape of the region. Rainier likely once stood even higher than today at about 16,000 ft (4,900 m) before a major debris avalanche and the resulting Osceola Mudflow approximately 5,000 years ago. Climbing teams require experience in glacier travel, self-rescue, and wilderness travel. Maximum speeds occur near the surface and along the centerline of the glacier. (Credit: Topinka, Lyn. Liberty Cap has a prominence of 492 ft (150 m), and so would qualify as a separate peak under most strictly prominence-based rules. Additionally, it will impact a scenic and natural resource that provides recreation, wildlife habitat, and water for drinking and power generation. A 2009 swarm produced the largest number of events of any swarm at Rainier since seismic monitoring began over two decades earlier. [12] Other names originally used include Tahoma, Tacobeh, and Pooskaus.[13]. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) , "Lahars look and behave like flowing concrete, and they destroy or bury most man-made structures in their paths." The South Tahoma Glacier generated 30 floods in the 1980s and early 1990s, and again in August, 2015. [100] Scientists track the distinct species found in the forest zone, the subalpine zone, and the alpine zone. [70] Later, the headquarters of the national park would be established at Longmire, until flooding caused them to be relocated to Ashford. [52], The volcanic risk is somewhat mitigated by lahar warning sirens and escape route signs in Pierce County. A Mount Rainier eruption will place the Puyallup valley at risk of catastrophe from a lahar, which is a volcanic mudflow that can reach 100 feet in height and travel 45 to 50 miles per hour. [23] Mount Rainier is ranked third of the 128 ultra-prominent mountain peaks of the United States. The mountains, the glaciers, the cascading streams and the forests may be equalled if one looks far away enough, but no park has been so favored in the way of wild flowers. All climbing routes on Mount Rainier require climbers to possess some level of technical climbing skill. In 1934, it was the 3-cent issue in a series of National Park stamps, and was also shown on a souvenir sheet issued for a philatelic convention. On March 2, 1899, President William McKinley established Mount Rainier National Park as America's fifth national park. [71] Longmire remains the second most popular place in the park. Congress dedicated the new park "for the benefit and enjoyment of the people"[75] and "... for the preservation from injury or spoliation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural condition. [54] More recently (since 2001) funding from the federal government for lahar protection in the area has dried up, leading local authorities in at-risk cities like Orting to fear a disaster similar to the Armero tragedy. Mount Rainier is behaving about as it has over the last half-million years, so all evidence suggests that the volcano will continue to erupt, grow, and collapse. Rainier National Park. The Eruption History of Mount Rainier. Certain springs contain larger amounts of soda, iron and sulphur, giving them a distinct taste and color. Lahars from Rainier pose the most risk to life as many communities lie atop older lahar deposits. Mount Rainier's next eruption might be of similar or larger size and could produce volcanic ash, lava flows, and avalanches of intensely hot rock and volcanic gases, called "pyroclastic flows." Mount Rainier is an episodically active composite volcano, also called a stratovolcano. There are many types of birds found throughout the different elevations on the mountain, but while some live there all year, many are migratory. [37], The volcano is highly eroded, with glaciers on its slopes, and appears to be made mostly of andesite. 508 ERUPTION . However, it doesn’t take an eruption to cause people to lose their lives on this sometimes deadly mountain. [55][56], Typically, up to five earthquakes are recorded monthly near the summit. Rainier is Cascade Range’s highest mountain and the highest peak in Washington, the U.S. Mount Rainier is a stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc that consists of lava flows, debris flows, and pyroclastic ejecta and flows. Mount Rainier is only an occasional eruptor, and is not as active as other Cascades volcanoes. Se kuuluu Kaskadeihin ja on kyseisen vuoriston korkein huippu 4 392 metrillään. Seismic monitoring can also be used to detect the movement of glaciers on the volcanic edifice or movement of the edifice itself, which could signal impending glacier outburst floods, rockfalls, or slope failures. [102][103] In the subalpine region of the mountain, the snow often stays on the ground until summer begins, limiting plants to a much shorter growing season. It has a topographic prominence of about 138 ft (42 m), so it is not considered a separate peak. Mount Rainier is much more than a mountain in the sky. The current name was given by George Vancouver, who named it in honor of his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier. [4] With a summit elevation of 14,411 ft (4,392 m),[5][6] it is the highest mountain in the U.S. state of Washington and the Cascade Range, the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States,[7] and the tallest in the Cascade Volcanic Arc. It lies about 40 miles (64 km) southeast of the town of Tacoma, inside Mount Rainier National Park. ", "Mount Rainier, Washington, USA – IAVCEI "Decade Volcano" – Hazards, Seismicity, and Geophysical Studies", "Sedimentology, Behavior, and Hazards of Debris Flows at Mount Rainier, Washington", "Volcano Hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington, Revised", "Mount Rainier Debris-Flow Maps available from USGS", "Mount Rainier Volcano Lahar Warning System", "Paths of Destruction: The Hidden Threat at Mount Rainier", "Abstract: DRAMATIC CHANGES TO GLACIAL VOLUME AND EXTENT SINCE THE LATE 19TH CENTURY AT MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK, WASHINGTON, USA (GSA Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington, USA – 2017)", "Change in glacial extent at Mount Rainier National Park from 1896 to 2015", "Rainier melting unleashes 'glacial outbursts' of debris", "Holocene Subsistence and Settlement Patterns: Mount Rainier and the Montane Pacific Northwest", "Hazard Stevens photographs, c. 1840s–1918", "Longmire: Designing a National Park Style", "Short History of Mount Rainier National Park", "U.S. Code: Title 16 Chapter 1 Subchapter XI § 91", "U.S. Code: Title 16 Chapter 1 Subchapter XI § 92", "Mount Rainier – Living Safely With a Volcano in Your Backyard", "US Stamps – Commemoratives of 1934–1935", "Disappointment Cleaver-Ingraham Glacier", "Liberty Ridge is risky, deadly Mount Rainier route", "Ghosts of Rainier: Icefall in 1981 entombed 11 climbers", "HistoryLink: A Curtis Commando R5C transport plane crashes into Mount Rainier, killing 32 U.S. Marines, on December 10, 1946", "Bodies of 3 missing climbers recovered from Mount Rainier", "Bodies of 3 Mount Rainier climbers identified", "Backcountry Skiing Guide to Mount Rainier, Washington", "Interesting Weather Statistics for US Mountain Summits", "Mt. [100] Efforts are also being made to reintroduce native species that had locally been hunted to extinction, like the Pacific fisher. These earthquakes are thought to be caused by the circulation of hot fluids beneath Mount Rainier.