Feeding behavior mostly results from the interaction between organoleptic properties of food and pet sensorial equipment. Special tactile receptors are widely distributed on the body surface. Sense organs capable to respond to light stimulus are photoreceptors. Primitive societies first domesticated animals as a convenient means of meeting immediate … The retina lines about posterior three-fourths of the eye-ball. It can be observed and measured, and experiments can be designed to test how it works. Three structures — the vestibule, the mem­branous labyrinth and cochlea lodged in a cavity, the bony labyrinth constitute internal ear. Since the vertebrates live in different media, their eyes are also adapted to see under water, in bright light, in dim light and in darkness (in relation to human vision). Phonoreceptors or sense of hearing can detect pressure waves caused by mechanical disturbances at some distance from the body. It is filled with air coming from the nasopharynx through the auditory or eustachian tube lined with a ciliated epithelium. The recep­tors or the olfactory epithelium (Fig. Cutaneous Sense Organs. These sense organs are capable to differentiate between chemicals and thereby help in controlling the activities of animals in relation to its surroundings, in the selection of food, in social behaviour, in defence from predators, in selection of mate and others. The olfactory receptors can detect objects from a distance while the gustatory receptors are active only in contact with the substance. The eye is moved by six muscles— superior oblique, inferior oblique, superior rectus, inferior rectus, anterior rectus and posterior rectus. Some animals can sense electric and magnetic fields. 14.9D) the naked axon is surrounded by a. complex, laminated sheath containing fluid. The anterior continuation of the choroid is made of non-striated muscle fibres, the ciliary muscle and known as ciliary body. In most cases, they are scattered all over the body. Receptors for taste and touch are present in these structures. Non-functioning of proprioreceptors causes numbness of an organ. In some cases, sand particles (Fig. It is a round capsule with a lens formed of elon­gated cells at the anterior wall and the pos­terior wall resembles a retina, made of an inner layer of rod-like visual elements and an outer layer of nerve fibres (Fig. Unable to display preview. 14.9A) consist of ovoidal groups of sensory cells innervated by a special nerve. Many fish sense their surroundings with a lateral line system, which detects changes in water pressure. Light rays enter the eye-ball through the transparent cornea and are focused by the lens on the retina. There are five sense organs – eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. They are controlled by five sense organs: the ears, eyes, nose, skin and tongue. The sensory neurons attached to the apical bod­ies, the scolopodia are bipolar. Sweet, sour, salt and bitter are four basic tastes. kochlias = snail), an outgrowth of the saccule is a spirally coiled tube of two and half turns. The impulses are transmitted to the brain and the person becomes conscious of the body position. The ears, eyes, nose, tongue and skin are the five sense organs. In the invertebrates they are concerned with transmitting postural information and are present in crustacea, and insects. The anterior and posterior canals are vertical in position while the external one is in horizon­tal plane. With their special receptor cells these fishes can detect the disturbance in the electric field and alter their course in water. Lithocysts (Fig. The mouth parts and terminal segment of butterflies and moths bear hairs and pegs. This is the conjunctiva. Isolated light sensitive cells are scattered over the body surface in earthworm. The earliest reference we have to unusual animal behavior prior to a significant earthquake is from Greece in 373 BC. It is 20 to 20,000 hertz in man, over 100,000 in bats. SENSE ORGANS A structure in animals that is specialized for receiving external or internal stimuli and transmitting them in the form of nervous impulses to the brain In animals, an organ or part that is sensitive to a stimulus, as of sound, touch, or light. Horses ears are funnel shaped and very mobile. What are the Olfactory Organs? The divergent rays from the near object are thus focussed to form a clear image on the retina. In human, extreme concentration of touch receptors are in the fingertips and lips. Photoreceptors in different degrees of perfection are present in the majority of the animals. The tympanum completely separates the external auditory meatus from the middle ear. The ocelli type eyes are constituted by a single ommatidium, as in arachnids (Fig. Some buds are specific while others may be stimulated by more than one tastes. It is attached to the suspensory liga­ment, the other end of which is continuous with the capsule enclosing the lens. The sense organs are innervated by the facial nerve and the lateralis branch of the vagus. It consists of parallel slits of varying length in the cuticle, resembling the strings of a lyre. Animal organs Senses I n this page, we are going to deal with structures and systems responsible for fetching information coming from outside the animal body, the environment. The membranous labyrinth (Figs. It is presumed that with their specific electric organs the fishes create a pulsating electric field around them and any object in the surroundings with a different electrical conductivity than that of the water will disturb the field. Odor, color, texture, shape, taste… at each step of the meal, different food attributes stimulate different pets’ organs and senses. ISBN 9780123957696, 9780323163323 The eyes of cephalopods are camera type like those of the vertebrates. A lens to concentrate light and a great increase in the number of photoreceptor cells led to the evolution of image forming eyes. The whole space between the lens and the retina, about four-fifths of the eye-ball, is occupied by a thin jelly, the vitreous humor, enclosed in a delicate, transparent membrane, the hyaloid membrane. A horse’s hearing is much keener than ours. These cells and their nerve fibres constitute the organ of corti, the hearing organ proper. The auditory organ in fishes is a simple, blind diverticulum, the lagena at the pos­terior end of the saccule (Fig. Unfortunately very little physiological work has been done on nematode sense organs and in most cases their function has had to be assumed from their location on the body of the nematode, or from their structure. The antennae and palpi in insects bear receptors for smell. Osphradium in molluscs can test the qua­lity of water and it is considered as a chemoreceptor. Proprioreceptors help us to work in dark. Due to the tendency of the eye-ball to remain globu­lar normally, there is a pull on the lens which keeps it flat. Just watch as horse as it reacts to sounds all around. Investigation Of Animal Behaviour. Rats, weasels, snakes, and centipedes reportedly left their homes and headed for safety several days before a destructive earthquake. Atmospheric air pressure on both the sides of the tympanum allows it to vibrate in response to sound waves. Equilibrium receptors respond to loss of bal­ance and help the animal to correct it. Animal Physiology. Cells sensitive to temperature variations are present in all vertebrates. They use their senses to look for food and so protection. Animals can sense a wide range of stimuli that includes, touch, pressure, pain, temperature, chemicals, light, sound, movement and position of the body. The hair cells in the ampulla move faster than the endolymph due to the inertia of the lattter in sudden turns of the head (angular accelaration) and the hair cells are stimulated due to differential movement. Thus, an animal’s sense organs are exceedingly important to its behaviour. Welcome to NotesOnZoology.com! Con­traction of the ciliary muscles release the pull on the lens and it thickens and moves forward. Before publishing your Notes on this site, please read the following pages: 1. 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